Studies on cotton genotypes and spacing for high density planting
M.Asha Rani V.Muthusamy Dr. T.Senthivel
The manipulation of plant density and crop geometry is a time tested agronomic technique for achieving high crop yield. Several leading cotton producing countries like USA, Australia, Brazil, Uzbekistan and China have developed suitable plant types to accumulate plant densities varying from one lakh to 2.5 lakh plants/ha by using narrow and ultra narrow row spacing. In India, CICR developed appropriate genotypes suited for high density plants with row spacing depending upon the soil type.
In Coimbatore, The SIMA Cotton Development and Research Association (SIMA CD & RA) has developed long staple with high ginning outturn genotypes of GP-102, GP-374, SHS-2-4 and Anjali with different spacing 83,000 to 1.5 lakh plants per hectare and conducted experiments at Ponneri, Udumalpet in varieties to evaluate suitable genotypes along with different spacing to suit high density planting systems. The successful outturn of yield in different spacing is summarized.
The manipulation of row spacing, plant density and the spatial arrangement of cotton plants for obtaining higher yield have been attempted by agronomists for server decades in many countries. The most commonly tested plant densities range from 5 to 15 plants (m2) (Kerby et al.1990) resulting in a population of 50,000 to 1,50,000 plants per hectare. The concept on high density planting, more popularly called ultra narrow row (UNR) cotton was initiated by Briggs et al. (1967) UNR cotton has row spacing as low as 20 cms and plant population on the range of 2 to 2.5 lakh pl ants/ha, while conventional cotton is planted in rows 90 to 100 cms apart and has a plant population of about 1,00,000 plants/ha. However, in India, the recommended plant density for cotton seldom exceeded 55,000 plants/ha.
The UNR system is popular in several countries like Brazil, China, Australia, Spain, Uzbekistan, Argentina, USA and Greece (Rossi, etal, 2004).
The availability of compact genotypes, acceptance of weed and pest management technologies including transgenic, development of stripper harvesting machines and widespread applications of growth regulators have made these high density cotton production systems successful in these countries. The above countries practices of cotton cultivation .e, high investment, high mechanization and large scale farming are not possible to be emulated in India due to small size of Indian agricultural holding and low capacity of the farmers to invest.
HDPS initiatives in India
In Central India, traditionally cotton was sown in lines using locally fabricated seed drills. The distance between rows ranged from 30 to 60 cms. The common spacing was 30 to 55 cms in Marathwada, 45 cms in Khandesh and Vidarbha (all Maharashtra) 35 cms in Malwa and Nimar (Madhya Pradesh) and 45 to 60 cms in Mathlo (Sowrashtra, Gujarat). The distance between plants within row was 22 to 30 cms (Sikka et al., 1961). For traditional G.hirsutum varieties (Buri), a spacing 60 x 30 cm was found to be optimum (Bhatt and Kumbhare 1956). Choufuli (square plaing at 35 x 35 cm also became popular in Vidarbha region since this method facilitated intercultural operations in both directions (Sikka et al, 1961). This system gained further acceptance after the introduction of cotton hybrids. Several research experiments conducted later indicated that with increase in plant density yield per cent are increased to an upper limit (optimum) plateau later and ultimately declined. The optimum plant density in this parabolic (density-yield) relationship was a function of the genotypes, soil type, climate and management. Before the advent of hybrid cotton, the highest plant density recommended for varieties of G.hirsutum and G.arnpreum were 55,000 and 89,000 plants/ha (boude and Rahu, 1996). World over, during the last 56 years, breeding efforts concentrated on developing sympodial varieties with fewer bolls per branch and more bolls closer to the main stem. The objectives were two fold, to fit in more plants per unit row length and to improve fibre quality. Bolls that were closer to the main stem received better nutrition were more uniform and expected to produce good quality lint.
During 2007-12 under the Technology Mission on Cotton (TMC) Project, concerted efforts on high density planting system using straight varieties were initiated under the leadership of the Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR), Nagpur 2010.
An ideal variety having better adoption to high density planting is the first step for successful HDPS on vertic Inceptisols.
SIMA CD & RA developed 4 genotypes having 8 to 10 bolls per plant closer to main stem (CICR Research Journal – Dec. 2013) with long staple and high ginning outturn (35% and above). Four genotypes viz., GP-102, GP-374, SHS-2-4 and Anjali were evaluated with four spacing viz., 45 x 15 cm (1,48,000 pl/ha), 45 x 20 cm, 60 x 15 cm (both 1,11,000 pl/ha) and 60 x 20cm (83.000 pl/ha) with 3 replications laid out in randomized complete block designs in SIMA CD & RA, Udumalpet from 2011-12 to 2013-14.
Table-1: Effect of planting density on seed cotton yield (kg/ha) of different genotypes:
|S.No||Genotypes||45 x 15 cm||45 x 20 cm||60 x 15 cm||60 x 20 cm||Mean|
|1,48,000 pl/ha||1,11,000 pl/ha||1,11,000 pl/ha||83,000 pl/ha|
The effect of spacing, genotypes and spacing x genotypes interaction were significant (Table-1)
Genotypes SHS-2-4, GP-102 and GP-374 were found to be most suitable for HDPS based on yield, morphological features, earliness, tolerance to sucking pests and boll weight. In yield genotypes SHS-2-4 (3358 kg/ha) GP-102 (3210 kg/ha) and GP-374 (3128 kg/ha) Performed best at 60x15cm, wheras for genotypes SHS-2-4 (3128 kg/ha) GP-102 (3051 kg/ha) and SHS-2-4 (3358 Kg/ha), GP-102 (3210 Kg/ha) 60 x 20 cm spacing were found to be higher in yield.
During the year 2012-13 promising genotypes SHS-2-4 was evaluated under HDPT trial at Nagpur (CICR Annual Report 2013-14)
The details are furnished.
“High density Planting System (HDPS) for maximizing productivity”
Valuation of Semi-compact G.hirsutum genotypes
Fourteen genotypes from diverse agro-climatic NH-615 (Nanded), ADB 39, ADB 532 (Adilabad), Supriya, Suraj, LRK-516, SIMA CDRA SHS-2-4 (Coimbatore), KC3, Vikram, Arogya, CINHT11, CINHT12, DSC99, PKVO81 were evaluated at 3 spacing 45 x 10 cm (2,20,000 plants/ha), 45 x 15 cm (1,48,000 plants/ha), 60 x 10 cm (1,66,000 plants/ha) on a shallow (45 cm) soil under rainfed conditions. The trial was also repeated on medium deep black soils (80 cm) but the genotypes Arogya and SIMA CDRA SHS-2-4 were replaced by C1412, PI-8-2-BK (CBE) and the spacing were 45 x 10 cm, 60 x 10 cm and 75 x 10 cm. In shallow soil, the effects of spacing, genotypes and spacing x genotypes interaction effects were significant. Across genotypes, yield at 45 x 10 cm (2297 kg/ha) and 60 x 10 cm (3272 Kg/ha) were at par and superior to that with 45 x 15 cm (2007 Kg/ha). In medium deep soil, the spacing effect was not significant by the effects of genotype and spacing x genotype interaction were significant. The ranking of genotypes in the decreasing order of productivity of common shallow and medium deep soils is given in Table-2.
Ranking of genotypes on shallow and med-deep soil (Table-2)
|Rank||45 x 10 cm spacing||60 x 10 cm spacing|
- AICCIP (2012) – AICCIP Annual Report 2011-12. All India Co-ordinated Cotton Improvement Project, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 003.
- Belot, Jean_Louis and Salles, Alvano, O (2010) – Second Cyle cotton growth with high plant density in Mato Grosso, Brazl –ICAC Recorder, June 2010.
- Bhatt, R.S and Kumbhare, B.M. (1956) – a study into cultural and manorial REQUIREMENTS OF Madhya Pradesh cottons, 7th Conf. Cott. Gr. Probl India, I.C.C.C., Bombay, 161.
- Briggs, R.E., Patterson, L.L. and Massey, G.D. (1967) – within and between – row spacing of cotton. Arizona Annual Report P6-7 Univ. of Arizona Agri. Ext. Service, Arizona.
- CICR(2010) – CICR Vision 2030, compileld by Dr K.R.Kranthi, M.V.Venugopalan, M.Subash and M.S. Yadav (2010). Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR), Nagpur, 55p.
- CICR (2013-14) M.V.Venugopalan, Dr.K.R.Kranthi, D.Blaise, Shubhangi Lakle and K.Sankaranarayanan.
- Kerby,TA,Cassmen, K.G. and Keekey.M (1990) Genotypes and plant densities for narrow-row cotton system, height, nodes, earliness and location of yield crop sci. 30: 645-649.
- Rossi.J., Novick, G., Murray, J., Landivar,J., Zhang, S.I, Baxevanos., D., Mateos, A. Kerby, T., Hake, K and Krieg, D. (2004). Ultra narrow row cotton, Global perspective and reduce pesticide use proceedings of the Technical Seminr of the 3rd Plenary Meeting of the ICAC: How to improve yields, Mumbai, India, No 2004, Pp.7-11.
- 9. Sikka, S.M., Singh, A., Gadkari, P.D., Balasubramaniyan, R, Iyengar N.K., Sawhney, K., Bederker, V.K., Patel, G.B., Pandya, P.S., Paranjpe, V.N and Panigrahi, N.S. (1961). Cotton in India A monograph, Indian Central Cotton Committee (ICAC), Bombay. Pp 1-373.
- 10. Venugopalan, M.V., Prakash, A.H., Kranthi K.R., Deshmuk Rachana, Yadav, M.S. and Tandulkar, N.R (2011). Evaluation of cotton genotypes for high density planting systems on rainfed vertisols of Central India. In book of papers, World Cotton research Conference (WCRC- 5) November 7th to 11th Mumbai, ICAC, ISCI, ICAR, Pp-341-346.
Yield and fibre quality enhancement in Superfine quality cotton of Suvin
M.Asha Rani, Dr K.Selvaraju, V.Muthusamy & Dr. T.Senthivel
The annual production of Extra long staple cotton in India is around 2.65 lakh bales. Suvin is the only G.barbadense variety currently under cultivation in India in a very limited way. The Textile mills are, therefore, compelled to import ELS cotton from countries like USA, Egypt, etc. As per the 2008-09 estimates, it costs around Rs. 1,300 crores to import 5 lakh bales of ELS. It is imperative that domestic production of ELS cotton has to be increased to meet the growing demand of the consumer industry.
A reselection from an Egyptian variety was released as Sujatha. Later Sujatha was crossed with St. Vincent from West Indies and variety Suvin was released in the year 1974. From 1975 to 1980, this variety was cultivated in 20,000 ha with an annual production of 30,000 bales. At that time the yield potential was 18-20 q/ha, possessing a ginning outturn of 28-29% and fibre length of 40 mm with micronaire of 2.8 to 3.0 and bundle strength of 30.0 g/tex. It can spin upto 100s to 120s counts. Duration was more than 200 days. Suvin had lost its yield potential and fibre qualities and the area under production has also drastically reduced.
In 1995, SIMA CD & RA undertaken the renovation and improvement activity in the world superfine extra long staple variety Suvin.
Out of 30 pedigree lines studied, 11 pedigrees were found to be promising for combination of attributes as against the norms set forth for each trait and merited under progeny tests.
|Sl.No||Pedigree Lines||Yield of seed cotton (kg/ha)||G.P||2.5% span length (mm)||Bundle strength (g/tex)||Mic.(µg/inch)||U.R.||Elonga-tion|
These reselected lines were subjected to bulk norms and single norm tests to identify lines confirming to the desired type before constituting improved mass pedigree lines.
Two populations viz., A and B were collected from different length groups and strength groups of above 11 progenies taking into account the original norms of original Suvin.
The population viz., A and B were intercrossed with A x A, B x B and A x B and studied with these 3 populations were conducted from 1995-96 onwards.
The populations were evaluated in comparison within themselves and commercial Suvin. From 3 years (2002-03 to 2004-05) results, it was observed that population-3 was high yielding with a mean yield of 1907 Kg/ha against 1442 kg/ha for population 1, 1267 Kg/ha for population-2 and 1118 Kg/ha for commercial Suvin. Population-3 possessed ginning outturn of 34.0% as compared to Population-1 (33.3%) and Population -2 (33.4%) and Commercial Suvin (30.5%) for fibre length. Plants were individually sampled and the following range in length was observed.
|Population||Range in Fibre length (mm)|
|P-1||37.2 to 39.0|
|P-2||38.0 to 39.6|
|P-3||39.4 to 40.0|
|Commercial Suvin||36.7 to 37.0|
Crop duration remained the same at 200 days and above.
From the above observation, it can be concluded that all the three populations are better in productivity and quality of the Commercial Suvin. Further screening and selection based on morphological and qualitative trials in yield uniform bulks of different length groups for further multiplication.
|Sl.No||Culture||G.P||2.5% span length (mm)||Bundle strength (g/tex)||Mic. (ug/inch)||U.R.|
Now substantial improvement has been achieved through intensive pedigree selection, single plant selection and panmictic population procedure in productivity (yield), ginning outturn and also in micronaire value without altering the morphological characters of the Suvin variety. Simultaneously, the duration of the variety has also been reduced to 170-175 days from 210 days.
|S.No.||Characters||Renovated SIMA CD & RA Suvin||Commercial Suvin|
|1||Kapas yield (Q/ha)||18-22||8-10|
|2||Ginning outtern (%)||33.4 – 34.0||28-30|
|3||2.5% span length (mm)||38.6 – 39.4||36.0|
|5||Micronaire (ug/inch)||3.4 -3.6||3.1|
|7||Duration (days)||170 - 175||210|
Renovated SIMA Suvin seeds had been distributed for conduct of on farm trials in farmers fields at Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka and got an average yield of 9-10 qtl/acre. These seeds were distributed to Appachi Cotton Mills, Tamil Nadu and in North Gujarat State also.
Improvement of Egyptian cotton Variety Suvin (Gossypium barbadense L.) for Yield and its attributes
Asha Rani, M1, Dr. T.Senthivel2 and Muthusamy, V2,
An attempt has been made to improve the genetic background of variety Suvin with desirable traits of high yield and Ginning percentage from the variety Giza; short duration in the sense of early maturity from variey Pima; and high fibere strength and length from the variety Sudan respectively. Promising single plant each was selected from the BC2F1 populations involving the crosses of Suvin x Giza, Suvin x Pima, Suvin x Sudan, (Suvin x Giza) x (Suvin x Pima) and was advanced up to BC2F6 generation. The Selected progenies of each cross combination was raised in RBD with three replications during Khariff season of the years from 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14 and advanced up to BC2F6. The data were recorded for the traits seed cotton yield, Lint yield, ginning outturn, 100 seed weight, boll weight, 2.5% span length, Micronaire and elongation. The cross derivatives of all the eight progenies evaluated during the years 2011-2014 have exhibited increased mean value over control for the traits Boll weight (g), Seed cotton yield (kg/ha), Lint yield (Kg/ha) and ginning outturn (in percentage) consistently. However, in regard to quality parameters such as 100 Seed weight, 2.5% Span Length, Strength (g/tex), Micronaire value and Elongation, the lines showed both positive and negative shift of mean value over control (Fig.1-6). The results indicates that F1s of all the cross combinations required to be backcrossed further with Suvin beyond BC3 and thereafter the progenies selected in BC3F1, needs to be advanced up to BC3F6 for improvement of yield parameters without altering the fiber qualities of Suvin.
Keywords: Egyptian cotton, Suvin, Pima, Giza, Sudan, Gossypium barbadense L, improvement, quality parameters, seed cotton yield, Ginning outturn, 2.5% span length
- Chief Cotton Breeder,
- Cotton Breeder and Research and Development, SIMA, Coimbatore.
- Registrar,Ghandhigram Rural University,Dinduigul
The annual production of Extra long staple cotton in India is only around 2.65 lakh bales. The Textile mills are, therefore, compelled to import Extra Long Staple (ELS) cotton from countries like USA Egypt, etc. As per the 2008-09 estimates, it costs around Rs.1, 300 crores to import 5 lakh bales of ELS cotton. It is imperative that domestic production of ELS cotton has to be increased to meet the growing demand of the consumer industry. As a first of kind, the Central Institute for Cotton Research, Regional Station, Coimbatore owns the pride of releasing the world famous super fine ELS cotton variety Suvin. It was derived as a progeny, re-selected from the crosses involving the parents Sujatha and St.Vincent and which was named as Suvin in the year 1971 -72. (Dharmarajulu, K., et al., 1976)
It has a uniform fibre characters, and can spun up to 120s count similar to that of Egyptian variety Giza with yield potential of 18.8 to 24.6q/ha. However the variety was identified susceptible to sucking pests like Jassids and pink bollworm but relatively less susceptible to spotted boll worm. During the period 1975-76, ICMF Cotton development Research Association has undertaken Suvin development programme in an area of 12,000 acres in Tamil Nadu and 30,000 in Andhra Pradesh and it was reported that the yield in the range of 4 to 15.6 quitals per acre and 12 to 14 quintals per acre respectively were obtained. A similar programme for development of Suvin has been undertaken in Madurai and Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu under aegis of SIMA Cotton Development Association.
In the year 1995, SIMA CD & RA had undertaken the renovation and improvement activity in the world’s superfine extralong staple variety Suvin. In 2003, improvement in yield in the range of 18-22q/ha, ginning outturn of 34.0 to 35 %, ), micronaire of 3.4 to 3.6, 2.5% span lenth of 39.8mm, bundle strength of 29.3 (g/tex) and reduction in duration from 210 days to 170 days respectively were achieved. Since then an extensive hybridization programme was undertaken during the year 2005-2014, for further enhancement of yield, fiber quality, and reduction in duration by crossing the variety Suvin with Giza, Pima and Sudan through backcross method and with an objective to bring out a suitable new barbadense variety an addition to variety Suvin that can serve the purpose of cotton growers and consumer industries.
Materials and Methods
The female parent Suvin and the male parents Giza, Pima, Sudan were raised in single rows of 6m length alternatively i.e. one row of female parent was alternated with one row of male parent with a spacing of 90 x 60 cm to accommodate 20 plants per row. Recommended agronomic practice was followed. Hybridization between selected combinations was done. The crossed bolls were collected and ginned separately to obtain the F1 seeds.
Seeds of all the 4 F1 hybrids were raised along with their parents in a Randomised Block Design with five replications. Five flowers in each F1 hybrids were backcrossed with Suvin to get BC1 seeds. BC1 progeny of each cross combination were raised in five rows along with their parents. Five plants each in BC1 were selfed to get BC1F1 generation and the same procedure was repeated to get BC2F1. Each of the BC2F1 generations was raised in 10 rows and the promising single plant progeny was advanced up to BC2F6 and also a progeny from a double cross involving parents (Suvin x Giza) x (Suvin x Pima) was also advanced up to F6 following the procedures as mentioned above. Five plants were randomly selected from each replication of all the crosses and parents and observations were recorded on individual plants on the following yield and its attributes.
Boll weight – Mean kapas weight of ten fully opened matured bolls at harvest in grams.
Yield of seed cotton per plant - Each of the five plants was harvested individually and the weight of the seed cotton from all the mature bolls was recorded in grams.
100-seed cotton weight – One hundred healthy seeds along with cotton from selected plant of each cross combination were weighed out in grams and recorded.
Ginning outturn - Ginning outturn or ginning percentage was determined as the ratio of lint weight to seed cotton weight, measured as percentage. A sample quantity of 100 well filled seed cotton was ginned in a laboratory-gin and the weight of lint and the weight of seeds were recorded and the ginning percentage was calculated using the formula:
Ginning outturn - Ginning outturn or ginning percentage was determined as the ratio of lint weight to seed cotton weight, measured as percentage. A sample quantity of 100 well filled seed cotton was ginned in a laboratory-gin and the weight of lint and the weight of seeds were recorded and the ginning percentage was calculated using the formula:
- Fiber length -Fiber length was measured as 2.5 per cent span-length with the digital fibrograph.
- Uniformity ratio - 50 per cent span-length and 2.5 per cent span-length were first obtained from digital fibrograph. Uniformity ratio was then calculated by the formula:
50 per cent span length% U R =x 1002.5 per cent span length
- Fiber fineness - Fiber fineness of cotton was determined by using "Sheffield Micronaire". The micronaire instrument employs the principle of measuring the resistance to air flow through a plug of fibers as an indication of the fineness of those fibers. A sample weight of 3.24 g was placed in the specimen holder and compressed to a fixed volume. Air at fixed pressure was forced through the plug. The amount of flow is indicated by the position of the float in the vertical tube connected to the compression chamber. Fineness is read directly on the micronaire scale.
- Fibre strength - The fiber strength was determined by using `O' gauge length of the fibers. The stelometer gives the tensile strength and is expressed in gram per tex. These tests namely fiber length, uniformity ratio, fiber fineness, maturity coefficient and fiber strength were conducted by utilizing the facilities available in the Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology (CIRCOT), a unit of Cotton Breeding Station at Coimbatore.
- Maturity coefficient - About 100 fibers were placed on a slide from an aligned end of the silver with the help of a tweezer in such a manner that the fibers are approximately parallel to one another. The fiber were covered with a coverslip and irrigated the fibers with 18 per cent caustic soda (NaOH) solution. The mounted slide were placed on the microscope stage in such a manner that the central portion of the fibers were beneath the objective lens. The fibers were examined one by one by moving the stage of the microscope in the transverse direction. Maturity coefficients were then obtained by using the formula :
M + 0.41M C =100Where, M = Percentage of mature fibers andI = Percentage of immature fibers
Results & Discussion:
The progenies from derivatives of parents involving different cross combinations were cropped during the year 2012 -2014 and their performance over check variety Suvin for the traits seed cotton yield, Lint yield, ginning outturn, 100 seed weight, boll weight, 2.5% span length, Micronaire value and elongation was assessed and presented in Table 1, 2 & 3. During first year evaluation (2011-2012), all the eight progenies recorded increased mean value over standard variety Suvin for the traits seed cotton yield, lint yield, ginning outturn and boll weight. For the traits 100 seed weight only two progenies viz SB-SG-1-4 and SB-SG-1-5 showed increased value. The progeny SB-SS-2-2 alone registered improvement on 2.2% span length but all other progenies showed values similar to that of control. The progenies SB-SP-2-2, SB-SS-2-2 and SB-SGSS-3-3 were found to be superior to control for the trait fiber strength. A substantial portion of micronaire value an influencing factor of fiber finess was found to be improved in all lines except a progeny SB-SG-1-1 The values closer to control was exhibited by all lines for the trait fiber elongation and out of which, the lines SB-SP-5-6, SB-SS-1-1, SB-SS-2-2 and SB-SGSS-3-3 respectively were showed increased fiber elongation (Table 1).
In subsequent second year evaluation during the crop season 2012-2013, all the lines recorded increased mean value for Seed cotton yield, lint yield, ginning outturn, boll weight and fiber strength and elongation respectively. However, for fiber length (2.5% Span length), only two progenies (SB-SG-1-5, SB-SS-1-1) were found sowed increased fiber length. Although the value of Micronaire between the ranges of 3.5 to 3.8 is considered to be ideal for Extralong staple barbadense variety like suvin, five progeny lines (SB-SG-1-4, SB-SG-1-5, SB-SP-5-6, SB-SS-1-1, and SB-SGSS-3-3) respectively were showed increased value for this trait in the range of 3.65 to 3.85 (Table 2).
In consecutive third year evaluation, during the crop season 2013 to 2014 also, all eight progeny lines were found showed increased seed cotton yield, lint yield and ginning outturn except the line SB-SG-1-5, of which the highest yield of seed cotton (1983 kg/ha) was recorded by the line SB-SP-2-2 followed by the line SB-SP-5-6 (1874 kg/ha) than that of control check variety suvin (1684 kg/ha). There has been a positive shift of mean value over control for the traits seed cotton yield, lint yield and ginning outturn attributing to minor loss of seed weight (100seed weight) in all lines but it was reverse in the case of two progenies viz. SB-SG-1-5 and SB-SP-2-2. Single boll weight is yet another important trait and can determine the yield of seed cotton. For this trait also, all progenies except SB-SS-1-1 were found promising. Similarly fiber length of lines were positive, of which a highest mean fiber length (40.3) was registered by the line SB-SP-2-2 followed by SB-SGSS-3-3. The progeny lines SB-SG-1-5, SB-SS-1-1, SB-SP-2-2 respectively were showed positive shift of mean value for the trait fiber strength. Whereas for the trait micronaire value, progenies SB-SG-1-4 and SB-SGSS-3-3 and for fiber elongation the progenies SB-SG-1-4, SB-SP-2-2, SB-SS-1-1 and SB-SGSS-3-3 respectively were found promising that of control (Table 3).
The results indicates that, the existing genetic background of variety Suvin was improved for the traits viz., Boll weight (g), Seed cotton yield (kg/ha), Lint yield (Kg/ha) and ginning outturn (in percentage). Among the single plant derivatives, the Progeny SB-SG-1-4, involving the parents Suvin x Giza recorded increased mean value over control for seven traits such as Seed cotton yield, Lint yield, Ginning outturn, 100 seed weight, boll weight, micronaire value and fiber elongation followed by the line SB-SGSS-3-3 involving the crosses (Suvin x Giza) x (Suvin x pima) showed increased mean value for all the above traits except for 2.5% Span length. In a study of cross between the elite barbadense lines DB 533 and DB 534, thirteen out of 53 lines advanced up to F5 were reported to be found promising for higher per se performance for seed cotton yield, bolls per plant, mean boll weight, seed index, ginning outturn, lint index, 2.5% span length and fiber micronaire value than Suvin (Alkuddsi, Y et al., 2013).
Since, the trait micronaire value represents fiber weight per unit length, wall thickness and hair diameter; the finer fibers will have lower estimates for this character. Negative heterotic effects are therefore, desirable for this trait. However, in majority of cases, the fibers with high micronaire are also desirable for medium and coarse cloth. Under such situations positive heterosis is of significance (Patil et al., 1988). Whereas Marani (1968 a, b, c) and Gupta and Singh (1974) reported that micronaire was influenced by both additive and non-additive gene effects. It was in conformity with the findings of present study that the progenies exhibited both positive and negative mean value over control for this trait. Similarly the line SB-SS-1-1 involving parents Suvin x Sudan was found promising for 6 out of 9 characters over control for all the above characters except boll weight, Micronaire value and Elongation. The lines SB-SG-1-5 (Suvin x Giza), SB-SP-2.2 (Suvin x Pima) and SB-SS-1-1 (Suvin x Sudan) were also found promising for five characters each as shown in Table- 1. These results were in agreement with the findings of Vaman et al, (1985).
The range of mean value between 7.10 -28.4; 6.12 – 41.4; 00 – 13.3; 2.31-8.94; 0.00-5.71;2.80 -5.71; -6.03-8.81; -4.99-11.89; and -1.39-20.0 for the traits seed cotton yield, lint yield, ginning outturn, 100 seed weight, boll weight, 2.5% span length, fiber strength, micronaire value and fiber elongation were registered by the progenies SB-SS-1-1, SB-SG-1-5,SB-SG-1-5,SB-SG-1-5,SB-SS-1-1,SB-SGSS-3-3,SB-SG-1-4, SB-SP-5-6 and SB-SP-2-2 respectively (Fig…)
However, in general, cross derivatives of all the eight progenies evaluated during the years 2011-2013 have exhibited increased mean value over control for the traits Boll weight (g), Seed cotton yield (kg/ha), Lint yield (Kg/ha) and ginning outturn (in percentage) consistently, but in regard to quality parameters viz. 100 seed weight, 2.5% span length, strength (g/tex), micronaire value and elongation, the lines showed both positive and negative shift of mean value over control (Table 4. & Fig.1-6).
However, in general, cross derivatives of all the eight progenies evaluated during the years 2011-2013 have exhibited increased mean value over control for the traits Boll weight (g), Seed cotton yield (kg/ha), Lint yield (Kg/ha) and ginning outturn (in percentage) consistently, but in regard to quality parameters viz. 100 seed weight, 2.5% span length, strength (g/tex), micronaire value and elongation, the lines showed both positive and negative shift of mean value over control (Fig.1-6). In a study of hybridization programme between nine female and three male parents for quantitative and qualitative improvement of Gossypium hirsutum L. cotton, Sundaravadivelu et al, (2005, 2006) have reported low and high inbreeding depression as well as heterotic vigour for the traits boll number and seed cotton yield in F3, BC1F2 and BC2 generations respectively over parents and F1s. Similar results were noticed with the progenies of present study that they were derived from intra-varietal crosses of G. barbadense parents. The results indicates that F1s of all the cross combinations required to be backcrossed with Suvin beyond BC3 and thereafter the progenies selected in BC3F1, needs to be advanced up to BC3F6 for improvement of yield parameters without altering the fiber qualities of Suvin.
The authors are thankful to the Chairman/Managing Director, CD & RA of South India Mill Association Owners for providing facilities and valuable suggestions to carry out the studies and the authors are also thankful to Mrs.P.Ranjithselvi, Ph.D Scholar, Cytogenetics and Plant Breeding Laboratory, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore for valuable suggestions and critically going through the manuscript.
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Table 1.Performance of Gossypium barbadense cotton Genotypes evaluated during 2011-12
|Name of culture||Seed Cotton yield||Lint Yield (Kg/ha)||Ginning Outturn||100 seed weight (g)||Boll weight (g)||2.5% Span Length||Strength (g/tex)||Micronaire||Elongation|
Table.2 Performance of Gossypium barbadense cotton Genotypes evaluated during 2012-13
|Name of culture||Seed Cotton yield (kg/ha)||Lint Yield(Kg/ha)||Ginning Outturn||100 seed weight (g)||Boll weight (g)||2.5% Span Lenth||Strength (g/tex)||Micronaire||Elongation|
Table 3.Performance of Gossypium barbadense cotton Genotypes evaluated during 2013-14
|Name of culture||Seed Cotton yield(kg/ha)||Lint Yield (Kg/ha)||Ginning Outturn||100 seed weight (g)||Boll weight (g)||2.5% Span Lenth||Strength (g/tex)||Micronaire||Elongation|
Project Proposals submitted to the Ministry of Textiles for Cultivation of naturally coloured cotton
The Ministry of Textiles from the Office of the Textile Commissioner, Mumbai organized a meeting of Sub-Group on 9th February, 2015 at 11 a.m. under the Chairmanship of the Secretary, Textiles Committee, Mumbai at the Vice-Chancellor Conference Hall of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad for preparation of Pilot Project on promotion of naturally coloured cotton. Secretary-cum-Chief Cotton Breeder and Cotton Research and Development Officer of SIMA CD & RA attended the meeting.
The project stakeholders were the Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Textile, University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Dharwad, Seed Manufacturing Companies like MAHYCO, Cotton Corporation of India (CCI), Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC), respective State Governments, International Institutes/Organizations, O/o Textile Commissioner, Textiles Committee, Karnataka Khadi Gamodyog Samyuktha Sangha (KKGSS) etc.
In the meeting, it was decided to cultivate coloured cotton in potential areas of 650 acres in Khandawa, Madhya Pradesh, Dharwad in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu mainly in rainfed with the back soil regions. The areas of allocation are as given below:
|1||Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)||500 acres|
|2||The SIMA Cotton Development & Research Association||100 acres|
|2||Central Institute for Cotton Research||50 acres|
The seed cotton produced in the above areas would be procured by the Cotton Corporation of India based on the prevailing market rate with 25% premium to the farmers by entering into a MoU.
As per the direction given at the above sub-group meeting, SIMA CD & RA was asked to submit a Draft Project Proposal for promotion of naturally coloured cotton in 100 acres to meet the requirement of the Textile Industry. Accordingly, SIMA CD & RA submitted the project proposal for
- Cultivation of coloured cotton in 100 acres in the farmers’ fields at Tamil Nadu in the project centres of Salem, Namakkal, Erode, Villupuram, Virudhunagar and Coimbatore districts with a budget estimate of Rs. 3 lakhs.
- Development of long staple coloured cotton cultivation in Tamil Nadu with a duration of two years at the estimated budget of Rs.30 lakhs.